A note on hanging indents
MLA style requires "hanging indents" for works cited entries: the second and subsequent lines of each entry are indented 5 spaces past the first line.
Examples in this guide do not show the hanging indent, because of the way that the guide displays across different screen sizes. See the tab "hanging indents" for more information on hanging indents and how to create them.
In addition, example citations in this guide are shown in bold. This formatting is used to help separate them from explanatory text. Do not use bold type for the citations on your real works cited page.
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The “other contributors” spot is a place to acknowledge people who were involved in the creation of the source, other than the main creator, such as a translator or editor. Many of the sources you cite will not have any other contributors that you need to acknowledge.
When deciding whether to put something in the “other contributor” spot, think about the purposes of citation, as discussed at the beginning of this document. Will putting the name of the other contributor help the reader locate or evaluate the source? If it will, you should include it.
Names of other contributors:
· Go after the title
· Are preceded by a short description, like “Edited by” or “Translated by,” and
· Are not inverted—put the first name first and the last name last.
Khosrokhavar, Farhad. Radicalization: Why Some People Choose the Path of Violence. Translated by Jane Marie Todd, New Press, 2017.
When there is a container title: The placement of the other contributor’s name, after the source title or the container title, depends on which they worked on—the container or the source. For example, here is a citation for a piece from an edited collection:
Smith, Meg. “Social Media and Intentional Misinformation.” Web of Deceit: Misinformation and Manipulation in the Age of Social Media, edited by Anne P. Mintz, Cyberage, 2012.
Meg Smith wrote the piece or article that is being cited, and Anne P. Mintz edited the whole book, so her name goes after the title of the book.
It doesn’t come up as often, but if the other contributor worked only on the source, not the container, then you’d acknowledge that person after the source title and before the container title. The following example shows a citation for a work in an anthology, where the anthology has an editor and there were different translators for each piece:
Shikibu, Murasaki. “Yugao.” Translated by Arthur Waley. Anthology of Japanese Literature. Edited by Donald Keene, Grove Press, 1955, pp 106-136.
If every piece in the anthology was translated by the same person, then the translator’s name would go after the title of the anthology (container).
Multiple other contributors: If there are two contributors in the same role (two editors or two translators), put both of their names, joined by “and”:
Gardener, Howard. “Five Minds for the Future.” 21st Century Skills: Rethinking How Students Learn. Edited by James Bellanca and Ron Brandt, Solution Tree Press, 2010.
If there are three or more contributors in the same role, you can use the first one’s name and “et al,” as described in the “author” section.
If you need to acknowledge multiple contributors in different roles, put a separate role description for each one, and separate them with commas:
Luzi, Mario. “If Only….” An Anthology of Modern Italian Poetry. Edited and translated by Ned Condini, introduction and notes by Dana Rega, Modern Language Association, 2009.
Bear in mind that other contributors only need to be listed if the reader is likely to have a use for that information. For the above source, the name of the person who did the introduction and notes would be important to include if material from the introduction or notes was being used in the research paper. If not, it would be fine to skip it. A source like a movie may have dozens of names associated with it; it is up to the researcher to decide which ones need to be included in the citation.